QUIRKS of the PAST
We are still very often used the word "fashion" without trying to define it. It sounds quite familiar to us, of course, and as it is not accepted to ask yourself the question that he was marked. Ask anyone and he will say: "we know, we Know... Fashion is..." And get stuck. That's it: know and don't know.
So what is fashion?
It is natural to look in the encyclopedia. They all in different words say one thing: fashion is temporary domination of flavors, which are manifested in external forms of life, especially in clothes.
In General, right. But just in General. If, for example, to look at the formation of fashion, the historical aspect, it turns out that the word had a different content.
Fashion, reflecting the various aesthetic trends of the century, in search of a new effect of lines, colors, utilitarian, reflects, however, political views, ideas of the era, its social order. Quite often she was chasing a vain goal to please others. About more than two hundred years ago, condemning the manners and customs of that time, wrote to the representative of the French enlightenment philosophy of Charles de Montesquieu: "the Society of women spoils mores and forms taste. The desire to please more than others, creates outfits and the desire to please more than the can itself, generates a fashion."
In different socio-economic era, fashion is evident not only from the desire to upgrade, but with respect to individuals or group of privileged people in the community, and sometimes from a desire to emulate them, be like them.
Of course, this is the least typical folk fashion, which was in direct dependence on social factors prevailing in this or that dominant class. Remember that in slave society, the slaves were forbidden to wear certain clothes. Wear a hat - meant incurring the most severe penalties. This hat was an attribute of only men. A little later the girls waited on the hostess, were not allowed to wear a hat and cap belong to the employee.
However, the prevailing caste walls do not interfere with the unconscious instinct of imitation. The famous Russian psychologist V. M. Bekhterev called it "one of the basic biological reflexes" of human nature.
Examples of imitation in clothes sometimes called completely unexpected circumstances. The cost, for example, one a Queen, the ruler of the then fashion, to wish for a smooth appearance on the balls to keep your pregnancy under specially devised for this occasion wide hoops of crinoline, how this instinct gets triggered. Thousands of women and girls who were not in her position and did not suspect anything, immediately began to imitate the monstrous innovation.Broad and essentially shapeless clothes were sacrificed to a lovely figure, distinguished by harmony, grace and beauty. Cost the French king Louis XIV to tie a wide scarf around the neck to hide the traces of scars after surgery, how soon and courtiers, and even the people of the lower classes also wore wide ties.
One day the king took with him to hunt his beloved. The wind had tossed his favorite hair. Not being able how to comb her hair, she tied them up with ribbon, the ends of which are very gracefully fell on her beautiful forehead. The king is looking at this suddenly formed hair came to the indescribable delight. The ladies of the court did not hesitate to share it with. Soon, they transformed their previous hairstyles in a hairstyle with a ribbon, then taking the most bizarre forms. Also about having high-heeled shoes. They entered one of the Queens of France, wishing to conceal your low rise.
In the early 90-ies of the XIX century to the races in London arrived the heir to the English throne - the future king Edward VII. On this day, unfortunately, it was drizzling. When the Prince came out of the carriage, so as not to soil his pants, he bent them. This accidental circumstance seemed to the then fashionistas remarkable. Cuffs on the pants immediately became the property of England. In Russia, they entered in the early 1910s.
The desire to imitate has become a kind of disease. The rich ladies and gentlemen tried very hard just to outdo each other. "To outdo" Countess so-and-so, or Prince such-that became their main occupation. Often the material from which one sewed herself a fashionable dress, used a different for... wall hangings, in defiance of the opponent. For this they were willing to endure the inconvenience, even to suffer. Apparently, then, was born the famous French expression: "If you want to be beautiful, must suffer."
Russian know, too carried away by Western fashion, bringing imitation to the point of absurdity, and sometimes to deformity. This is especially noticeable in the early NINETEENTH century in Moscow, during the reign of Alexander I. in Describing the then without end sabalauskas rodivshihsja and fashionistas, the poet Batyushkov in a letter to one of his friends wrote: "Here I saw the Moscow dandies in patent leather boots and a wide English frock coats and with and without glasses and disheveled hair".
But history and psychology of fashion and knows more. It is known that in the past, fad or whim of any important in the society of persons of a known group or class could at some time affect the customs, style and tastes. Consequently, the fashion media would become a driving force of its development or decline. So, if Peter, as we know from the history of costume, forced introduced in the Russian Western fashion, the reign of Paul I, was marked by the persecution of the fashion of the other character. From the decrees of the military Governor of St. Petersburg, published in 1798 - 1800, it is clear that all were forbidden to wear coats. Instead, they introduced German dress. Instead of different jackets only allowed German jackets. Equally forbidden to wear frill, and women - blue coats with red collars and white skirt.
Russian Emperor-tyrant attempting, in Alliance with Austria-Hungary and other reactionary governments to suppress the French revolution of the late EIGHTEENTH century, saw the meaning that at the same time to fall on the fashion of French origin, spread then in Russia.
Fashion knows other curiosities arising from social and economic structure of society. Among other vehicles, a buggy, a coach, a passion for horse riding has caused the need to change clothes, particularly women's. In the late EIGHTEENTH century many women were fond of Cycling. At first it was considered a fad. There were those who saw in this form of women's sports is something unaesthetic and even immoral.Later, when the bike received the rights of citizenship, not only among men but also in women, the latter began to wear trousers more appropriate clothing, replacing the uncomfortable skirt.
Oddly enough, new womens sports fashion born primarily from utilitarian needs, has caused an unprecedented reaction. The debate about whether a woman wearing trousers, it's beautiful and hygienic if it took unusually acute. Opponents of the new fashion in the proof of his innocence raised objections based on moral and scientific concepts. Other not less justified defended trousers.On such a burning issue was released in Russia two special books, "Woman and Bicycle" (1899) and "the Lady in the pants" (1912), in which historical authenticity and forensic accuracy proves the absurdity of the denial of women's trousers and their extreme utilitarian necessity. One of the authors wrote: "Street scandals in the capitals of the world, as in Russia, are striking in their absurdity, their groundlessness".
And all this happened despite the fact that men didn't lose anything from that reasonable innovations of fashion, and women in turn have not gained any privileges in front of men. Debated common convenience.
Remembering his first meeting in 1893, with Paul Lafargue, husband of the daughter of Karl Marx - Laura, the first Commissar of education, Anatoly Lunacharsky, told how Lafargue angrily struck the, who at the time vehemently defended long, to the floor, women's skirts, the absurdity of which was proved for centuries. It was common knowledge that they are less hygienic, restricted freedom of movement, prevented the woman to master the bike. "We need - said the Lafarge - has long been to lose this ridiculous skirt and put on more or less decent and suitable woman pants.If the pants are too afraid of our stupid civilization, at least, it is necessary to fully shorten the skirt".
Participants egregious attacks on women were not considered with the fact that in different historical periods slacks was a professional peculiarity, the specificity of the fashion what to wear the skirt in many cases of life is simply unthinkable. It is known, for example, that in the late EIGHTEENTH century, when England appeared a new profession of travelwize, the first woman who worked in this profession, took to the roof in my pants. She appeared in a skirt, this would be not only inexpedient but improper.
One way or another, but fashion was stronger than prejudice, stronger habits of mind. Harem pants have become part of women's wardrobe.
In our turbulent age, when the dynamic of life requires women ease, stamina and speed, all would condemn the fashion for women pants. Except if they are in completely inappropriate cases and inappropriate environment. In any case, their right to wear trousers women are bound to the people of past generations who were able to defend them. And as we have seen, with great difficulty.