The FORMATION of a NEW STYLE
Comes a time, changing socio-economic structure, and changing views on fashion. In place of one of the ideals of beauty come different.
The October revolution marked not only a fundamental transformation of society, which have disappeared forever, enslavers, but also a bold breakthrough in the field of culture and art. Now their blessings were to use working people. The ideology of socialism has spawned a new look at material and spiritual wealth of society, a new aesthetic. These aesthetics have developed new requirements to the culture of clothing, representing a specific part of the material culture of the society. Read: fashion should be truly national and available to the public.
Older people remember very well men's clothing during the civil war and the first postwar years. What was then considered beautiful, fashionable? Closed jacket, trousers, breeches, leather jacket, sweatshirt, shirt, overcoat, cap or cloth helmet budenovka, boots. Kensky clothes were similar to men's. It differed only by the skirt but the scarf. Jungsturm wore youth. It was militarized and in their appropriate costume of the young man of the Soviet state, as if emphasizing his willingness at any moment to take up arms to defend the socialist Fatherland.Such clothing and after the civil war characterized the aesthetic tastes of the time, was her imprint, symbolized the great importance of the revolution that occurred.
Film and photography have preserved for us the appearance of the great Lenin in a modest protective jacket with patch pockets and stand collar, lightweight cap. Such clothes were worn by Lenin in the last years of his life in the Hills. Memorable images of Yakov Sverdlov in a leather jacket, cap and boots, Felix Dzerzhinsky in the tunic, overcoat and budenovka. The leaders of the revolution, the leaders of the party and the state did not differ in their clothing from the workers, how different in tsarist Russia, the aristocratic know.
Of course, not to speak of the special development areas of the clothing in those years, when the fate of the young Republic desperately fought against foreign intervention and counter-revolution. Aptly said about the atom my first teacher of the art of tailoring: "When the rumble of the cannon, cutting tables rests a soldier's cloth".But as liquidated destruction, restored the country's economy began its industrialization occurred, along with other plans to create new clothing, which had to meet the increased material levels of the Soviet people and increase their demands for beauty. However, at first much in the suit still bore the imprint of Western fashion, but creating your own, Soviet, has really put on the agenda, it becomes a visible problem.
There can be traced several stages in the development of Soviet fashion.
Thanks to the memoirs of the former Director-organizer of the first in Soviet Russia, Studio O. Senichevu-Kashchenko, we can restore important for the time picture.
1922. In the country hunger and ruin. One after another come into operation restored the plants come to life, factory, mines. But with the NEP appear in the cities elegant ladies in hats, gentlemen in starched collars. The NEP begins to impose their fashion, their tastes. And working people still wears the overcoat and tunic. No, not was of secondary importance then question about fashion, about clothes.
It was necessary to create their own new clothing, to oppose it that it suggested that unfolded in the conditions of the NEP private trade. And although money was scarce, and experts - artists and designers were not at all, on the initiative of several enthusiasts have created the "Center for the formation of the new Soviet costume." Later, this first "Center" was renamed the "couture".
...Three-storey building on Petrovka. Here in a small room, the artists began to create clothes for women of the first socialist country... from the very beginning They refused blind imitation of Western fashion. They dreamed about creating your own fashion that meets the needs and lifestyle of Soviet women. Never modeled clothes especially for work, and "tailoring" has been given serious attention. It was agreed that the "overall" (as they said then) should be simple in form, practical in color. Especially recommended brown, blue, grey (not black) tone.For women working in construction, "invented" jumpsuit.
Was done, and fancy clothes - inexpensive for all. Artists tried to make the best possible use of the Russian national motives of folk embroidery. This finish helped to enrich, diversify scarce in those days, the choice of fabrics.
Moscow, 1923. Here was held the first all-Russian artistic and industrial exhibition, which presents different designs of clothes. Among them model, "tailoring", has won universal recognition. Committee of the Russian Academy of artistic Sciences awards "tailoring" diploma of the 1st degree "For a good silhouette and colorful achievements, and models that reflect a keen understanding of the relationship between living figure, material and artistic form, for the attraction of highly skilled artistic forces to the cause of finding a new modern suit."
The exhibition, which were above it, were the costumes of a new type, clear, easy design, simple form, meeting the requirements of folk clothes. They performed in creative collaboration three artists of different directions - designer N. Lomanova, sculptor V. Mukhina and theater artist of A. Ekster. Isn't that kinda the Commonwealth and not less interesting feature in the biography and later the world-famous Mukhina.The one, whose sculpture depicting working men and women in front of the entrance to the exhibition center became the stage and Soviet art, the emblem of the film Studio, and many articles of domestic production.
Two years later, in Paris, famed for its monopoly in the arena of world fashion, setting a world's fair. Sensation: the greatest success and the award "Grand Prix" win the ensembles of clothes N. Romanovoj and V. Mukhina. Moreover, they simulated samples then have a certain influence on the aesthetic features of European dress, for its further development. It was only the first fertile seeds, germination which presaged the Soviet school of modeling clothes bountiful harvest.
In 1923 in Moscow, begins publication multicolor fashion magazine "Atelier", and in 1928 the all - Russian magazine "Art of dress", in which he published various model of clothing, the workers and servants, and prominent figures of culture and art devoted to the questions of aesthetics of fashion and its prospects. In this sense, of special interest is the article by A. V. Lunacharsky. It is probably little known, though nowadays, after more than forty years, retains its relevance.